Click here for information on the 2011 workshop.

UPDATED [October 12]: Panel summaries and reading materials are updated.

Workshop Description  | Sponsors | Schedule | Panel Descriptions | Directions

A workshop on international cyber norms met for the second time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, MA, from September 12 to 14, 2012.

In the last few years, there has been growing recognition that widely accepted, articulated norms can support the beneficial development of global cyberspace and reduce the likelihood of conflicts there. One objective of our workshops is to identify norms which could fill such a role, explore their groundings in law and technology, and estimate the feasibility of their acceptance, given current political and economic contexts. The workshops provide an opportunity for cyber policy makers, analysts, academics and practitioners to exchange and probe relevant ideas and proposals. We hope that these conversations, through participants’ networking and reports, will support and inform the positive steps that are taken by governments, private sector and civil society to promote cyber norms.

The agenda below for the 2012 workshop was been crafted for that purpose. The selection of panels was reached by the workshop’s three co-chairs in consultation with the organizing committee, with the idea of building upon, rather than repeating, discussions in other forums. To stimulate our thinking together, the panels dispense with presentations of formal papers. Instead, panelists, who are selected by the panel chairs, address a series of framing questions for the first half of al session -- usually forty-five minutes. Discussion of the questions is then open to all workshop participants for the remaining half of the session.

To encourage openness and the sharing of information both among participants and later with the general public, the workshops are conducted under a modified Chatham House Rule. The participants are free to use the information received, but are not free to attribute information to a speaker by name or by the speaker's affiliation, without express permission. After the workshop, its agenda and list of its participants are made publicly available, but any participant can have his or her name removed upon request. The summaries of the panel discussions do not attribute views or items of information to particular speakers.

We thank the workshop participants for sharing their thoughts and joining together to build knowledge about cyber norms.


Ronald Deibert, University of Toronto, co-chair
Roger Hurwitz, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, co-chair
Joseph Nye, Harvard University, co-chair
October 10, 2012

Workshop Organizing Committee

Chris Demchak, US Naval War College
Martha Finnemore, George Washington University
Nigel Inkster, International Institute of Strategic Studies
James Lewis, Center for Strategic and International Studies
Karl Levitt, University of California at Davis
Kristin Lord, Center for a New American Security
Catherine Lotrionte, Georgetown University
John Mallery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Eneken Tikk, University of Toronto
Zachary Tumin, Harvard University

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The workshop is sponsored by:
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Download/print schedule [PDF]

Wednesday, September 12, 2012

Start End Time Topic Speakers
18:30 20:30 120m Reception and Dinner
MIT Faculty Club
50 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA
20:30 21:15 45m Remarks on GGE and ARF meetings and the diplomatic process for cyber security Nick Haycock

Thursday, September 13, 2012

Start End Time Topic Chair(s) Speakers
8:00 8:45 45m Registration & Breakfast
G449, CSAIL, Stata Center
32 Vassar St., Cambridge
8:45 9:00 15m Welcome   Ron Deibert, Joe Nye
9:00 10:30 90m Panel 1: Evolution of Western Internet Governance: Norms, Values, Interests, Models & Institutions.
(Description  | Questions | Summary [PDF])
Ron Deibert Joseph Nye, Harvey Rishikof, Michael Walma, Rex Hughes, and John Savage.
10:30 10:45 15m Break    
10:45 12:15 90m Panel 2: Alternative Models and Challenges Posed by States to Western Governance.
(Description | Questions | Summary [PDF])
Nigel Inkster, Pano Yannakogeorgos Chris Bronk, Tim Maurer, James Mulvenon, and Rafal Rohozinski.
12:15 13:00 45m Lunch
Stata Center
13:00 14:45 105m Panel 3: The Applicability of International Law to Cyberspace & Characterization of Cyber Incidents.
(Description | Discussion Points | Summary [PDF])
Catherine Lotrionte, Eneken Tikk  
14:45 15:00 15m Break    
15:00 16:45 105m Panel 4: Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) and Rules of Engagement (RoE) in Cyberspace.
(Description | Questions | Summary [PDF])
Duncan Hollis Amy Gordon, Eric Jensen, Neil Rowe, Hardin Tibbs, and Jody Westby.
16:45 18:45 120m Break    
18:00 - - Dinner at EVOO Restaurant
350 Third St., Cambridge, MA 02139

Friday, September 14, 2012

Start End Time Topic Chair(s) Speakers
8:15 8:50 45m Breakfast
G449, CSAIL, Stata Center
32 Vassar St., Cambridge
8:50 9:00 10m Welcome   Randall Davis
9:00 10:45 105m Panel 5: Norms for Security, Resilience and Supply-chain Integrity in Core Telecommunications Infrastructure.
(Description | Questions | Summary [PDF])
John Mallery Philip Hallam-Baker, Patrick Lincoln, David MacMahon, and Michael Sechrist.
10:45 11:00 15m Break    
11:00 12:30 90m Panel 6: Cyber Security Awareness and Norm-development: Practical issues for Engaging Critical Private Actors
(Description | Questions | Summary [PDF])
Chris Demchak Greg Rattray, Andrew Cushman, Rafal Rohozinski, and Bill Studeman.
12:30 13:15 45m Lunch
G449, CSAIL, Stata Center
32 Vassar St., Cambridge
13:15 14:45 90m Panel 7: Alternative Lenses and Models for International Norms and Governance.
(Description | Questions | Summary [PDF])
Roger Hurwitz, Alexander Klimburg Martha Finnemore, Yurie Ito, Sarah McKune, and Emilian Papadopoulos.
14:45 15:00 15m Break    
15:00 16:45 105m Panel 8: Cyber Futures and Directions for Global Engagement.
(Description | Questions)
James Lewis, Joe Nye Ron Deibert, Amy Gordon, Kristin Lord, and Jamie Saunders.

Download/print schedule [PDF]

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Panel Descriptions

  1. Evolution of Western Internet Governance: Interests, Values, Norms and Institutions addresses origins and rationales of US and liberal democracies’ international strategies, the multi-stakeholder model and issue of Internet freedom agenda and pushback to it. (Read panel framing questions).
    Chair: Ron Deibert.

  2. Alternative Models and Challenges Posed by States will cover Russian, Chinese and the “non-aligned countries’ (India, Brazil, South Africa) proposals and strategies regarding governance, the absorption and response to the Internet in developing countries, and what the upcoming WCIT (Dubai) might portend for current Internet institutions. (Read panel framing questions).
    Chair: Nigel Inkster, co-chair: Panayotis Yannakogeorgos.

  3. The Applicability of International Law to Cyberspace and Characterization of Cyber Incidents concerns "norms" from legal perspective and political perspectives, and categorizes cyber incidents under existing legal thresholds (crime v. "low-intensity conflict" v. "use of force" v. "armed attack" etc.). Panel will also look in more detail into the areas of state responsibility for cyber behaviors originating in their territories, and seek to identify (potential) gaps in existing legal instruments and practice to be filled in by other normative (including non-binding) frameworks.
    Chairs: Catherine Lotrionte, Eneken Tikk.

  4. Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) and Rules of Engagement (RoE) in Cyberspace deals with questions of LOAC applicability, the status of RoE development, questions regarding the knowledge on which they are based, protection afforded cyber-based critical infrastructures and similar issues. (Read panel framing questions).
    Chair: Duncan Hollis.

  5. Norms for Security, Resilience and Supply-chain Integrity in Core Telecommunications Infrastructure panel identifies the threats to the core infrastructure, the requirements for its trustworthiness, and the elements of a technical strategy for assuring them. It considers what division of labor among public and private sectors can implement the possible strategies at domestic and at international levels. It then recommends actions that states and private actors can undertake to secure their core telecommunications infrastructures. (Read panel framing questions).
    Chair: John Mallery.

  6. Cyber Security Awareness and Norm-development: Practical issues for Engaging Critical Private Actors panel explores what needs to be addressed within nations in order to bring private actors from critical infrastructure industries, IT capital goods firms, and cyber victim corporations into collective, collaborative, effective efforts ensuring cyber security for themselves and the wider nation. Given the massive role played by private firms in most Westernized democracies' national critical infrastructures, it is more effective for the nation's resilience and socio- technical- economic long-term well-being if these key private actors voluntarily and collectively collaborate in ensuring the whole system's cyber security. (Read panel framing questions).
    Chairs: Chris Demchak.

  7. Alternative Lenses and Models for International Norms and Governance includes ICT sector and civil society interests and perspectives, regional cyber defense structures and norms, CERT alliances. (Read panel framing questions).
    Chairs: Roger Hurwitz, Alexander Klimburg.

  8. Cyber Futures and Directions for Global Engagement topics include managing competition in a dynamic international system, the impact of strategic choices on cyber futures, the strategic engagements of major cyber powers, the roles of the UN in promoting cyber norms. (Read panel framing questions).
    Chairs: James Lewis, Joseph Nye.
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Getting from the Hyatt Regency to the workshop site and back

The workshop hotel is the Hyatt Regency at 575 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA.

Walking: The Stata Center (MIT Building 32) is a one mile walk from the hotel. Turn left after exiting the hotel and continue along Amesbury St. to Vassar St. Turn right at Vassar St. and continue for nearly a mile to the Stata Center. You will pass the MIT athletic fields (yes, there really are some) on your right, cross Massachusetts Avenue and reach 32 Vassar St., the main entrance to the Stata Center.

MIT Shuttle Bus: The MIT campus shuttle bus can be used by workshop participants staying at the Hyatt. The drivers will have a list of your names. The closest stop is on Vassar St. in front of MIT Building W92, which is across the street and to the left of the hotel entrance. Go around the corner for the shuttle stop (No. 7 on the shuttle map.) The shuttle proceeds along Vassar St. to the Stata Center (No. 10). For a return to the hotel, board the bus in front of the Stata Center. The shuttle then proceeds to MIT's east campus before looping back to the west campus and stop No. 7. Click here to see map and time table.

Hyatt Regency Shuttle Bus: The Hyatt hotel provides periodic shuttle service for its guests to Main St., near the Stata Center. Please consult with the concierge for times.

Directions to the Wednesday, September 12 reception and dinner

The workshop reception and dinner will be held at the MIT Faculty Club, beginning at 6:30 PM.

The Faculty Club is located on the sixth floor of the Sloan School of Management building, at 50 Memorial Drive and designated E52 at MIT and on MIT maps.

Walking: Click here to see walking directions from the workshop hotel to the Faculty Club. About 15 minutes into the walk, you will pass, on your right, the Mass Ave bridge across the Charles River. After you cross Mass Ave, the second street on your left is Wadsworth St. The Sloan School building (E52) is on the other side of Wadsworth with a door facing Memorial Drive. Enter through that door and proceed straight through the lobby to a bank of elevators on your right.

MIT Shuttle Bus: The MIT campus shuttle bus can be used by workshop participants staying at the Hyatt. Get off shuttle at stop no. 2, the corner of Wadsworth and Amherst. When you turn to face the Hermann Building (E53) which resembles an inverted pyramid, the Sloan building, with an entry to it, will be on the right side of the plaza. On your left, beyond that entry, a bank of elevators.

Driving: If you are driving, you can park in the MIT parking lot off Broadway, just beyond the merging of Main St. and Broadway in the direction of the Longfellow Bridge. You can then reach the faculty club, by entering the new additional to the Sloan Building, then turning right and proceeding down a hall to a richly upholstered sitting room. Turn right again and you will soon find the bank of elevators. See building map here.

Directions to G449, Patil/Kiva Seminar Room, CSAIL, Stata Center

The Patil/Kiva Seminar room is on the fouth floor of the Gates Tower in the Stata Center at 32 Vassar Street (MIT Campus Map: Building 32).

Enter the Stata Center building at the front entrance (at 32 Vassar St.) and proceed straight ahead; there will be elevators to the right. Take the elevators to the fourth floor; exit to the left and then turn right at the end of the elevator bank.

At the end of the short corridor bear to the left and continue around the R&D Dining Room.

CSAIL Headquarters will be to your left and the Patil/Kiva Seminar Room will be straight ahead.

If you enter the Stata Center from the entrance closer to Mass Avenue, take an elevator on your right to the fourth floor. exit left, then turn right through double glass doors. Continue straight until are near a down staircase. The door to G449 will be on your right.

Floor map:

Directions to EVOO Restaurant, 350 Third Street, Cambridge

Walking: Click here to see walking directions from the Stata Center to the restaurant.

MIT Shuttle Bus: The MIT campus shuttle bus can be used by workshop participants staying at the Hyatt. Get off at stop no. 1, and walk in the direction of the bus until you come to a small plaza with a steel sculpted globe in its center. Turn left and cross street. Continue straight until you pass a street on your right. The restaurant will be on your right.

Driving: If you are driving from the Stata Center, exit parking and turn right. Go straight through the stoplighted intersection of Vassar and Main and turn right on next light into Broadway. Proceed to second light and turn left into Third Street. (It will be the first street on your left.) Proceed to Athenaeum St., the third street on your right. Turn right into Kendall and you will see an entrance to a garage, where parking for the restaurant is reduced. After parking, exit the garage and cross a concrete plaza, veering toward your left (10:30 direction). The restaurant is on the ground floor of the building in front of you.

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